In this article, I will be explaining to you How do ventilators work. Around 19% of people diagnosed with coronavirus are in severe or critical conditions. 

Severe cases may lead to pneumonia or respiratory failure, leaving the patient requiring assisted breathing through a ventilator. 

This article provides a quick overview of how mechanical ventilators ensure vital organs and tissues receive sufficient oxygen to function normally.

 How does the respiratory system work? The autonomic nervous system triggers respiration by sending a signal to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs. 

This allows for lungs to contract and expand, resulting in lower internal pressure.

Air moves through the nose and mouth towards the trachea into the bronchi traveling to the left and right lung. 

The bronchi branch is out to smaller bronchioles with tiny alveoli attached to inflates due to the air breathed in the alveoli. 

A small air sac in the lungs is wrapped in carbon dioxide-rich capillaries—the inhaled oxygen molecules interchange with the carbon dioxide molecules through diffusion.

How do ventilators work

Another signal is then sent to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to relax, leading to higher pressure in the lungs, which forces carbon dioxide-rich air out of the lungs.

(8360) How do ventilators work? – Alex Gendler – YouTube

 This results in a smaller volume and higher pressure severe cases of covid 19 with symptoms of pneumonia or respiratory failure causes the alveoli to fill with fluid which makes it extremely difficult to breathe.

Thus requiring the aid of mechanical ventilation how mechanical ventilators work mechanical ventilation involves using a ventilator to assist or replace the patient’s breathing, this may include a machine called a ventilator and bag-valve-mask or BB M, which is compressed by a medical professional the most common mechanical ventilators

How do ventilators work
How do ventilators work

used apply positive pressure to the airway’s opening, and the air is forced into the lungs. 

How do ventilators work

  1. The ventilator is a closed circuit that is attached to an endotracheal tube in the patient’s airway; 
  2. on inhalation, the oxygen-rich air moves from the ventilator to a heat moisture exchanger where the air is heated and humidified to simulate.
  3. Natural air is then forced into the lungs, following the same route as that of normal breathing.
  4. On exhalation, carbon-dioxide rich air will be exhalled passively with covid 19 patients.
  5. Pressure must be constantly present on the lungs after exhaling to keep the alveoli open and assist with oxygenation to reduce breathing effort.
  6. Positive end-expiratory pressure or peep is used in ventilators to maintain this constant positive pressure. 
  7. Mechanical ventilators constantly monitor the pressure of volume, and air medical professionals use the monitored variables to choose the best ventilator mode for the particular patient. 
  8. Invasive mechanical ventilation involves an instrument placed through the mouth into the trachea, such as an endotracheal tube. 
  9. In contrast, facial masks and nasal prongs are commonly used for non-invasive ventilation. 
  10. Two examples of ventilator side effects that coronavirus patients may experience include Barrow trauma which is the rupturing of alveoli due to excessive pressure and volume.
  11. The alveoli are damaged due to excessive overinflation of an organ due to the high number of people infected with Covid 19. 


These mechanical ventilators are in high demand. There is a shortage in the supply thereof; companies such as Tesla Ford and GE Healthcare or General Electric Healthcare Philips and universities have started to prototype and manufacture ventilators.

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